We are developing tools for neuroscience that exploit CMOS technology and nanoscale interfaces, including dense electrophysiological recording systems with more than 64k channels. We are also developing various optical and acoustic systems on CMOS for interfacing to both the CNS and PNS.
For studying biological systems, optical microscopy techniques in which photons act as an intermediary between the biological system and the solid-state world remain paramount. In this project, we seek to develop new tools for microbiology based on electrochemical sensing of metabolites. These tools give us new insight into microbial communities, including those that may be pathogenic and those that may benefit human health (such as in the gut microbiome).
Delivering power to integrated circuits is becoming an increasingly complex challenge. On the high end, chips can demand in excess of 150 W of power at supply voltages of less than 1 V, leading to current demands approaching 200 A.
Over the past several decades, a variety of imaging techniques have enabled a wide range of studies of the structure, function, and dynamics of molecules at the single-molecule level. However, popular fluorescent single-molecule techniques generally cannot directly resolve temporal changes that occur on sub-millisecond timescales, as imaging times must accommodate the relatively slow rate of photon emission from single fluorophores.
Si CMOS is facing increasing challenges in continuing performance gains with channel length scaling due to the growing importance of fringe capacitance parasitics, short-channel effects due to degraded electrostatics, and gate leakage.